Technologies

3D printet filter

From 3D file to 3D print

There is a number of 3D print technologies to use for 3D printing. Common for all the technologies is that a part is produced directly from a 3D file in .stl format. STL files can be generated from a 3D CAD part or from a 3D scan.

DAVINCI has a large and highly technological range of machines and offers 3D printing by use of several different technologies. Click on the technologies for more information.

To compare the technologies look at Technology comparison 

 SLA (Stereolithography Apparatus)

The SLA technology is ideal for parts with small and very fine details. It can be used for function models, where design and detailed mechanisms must be tested. DAVINCI produces SLA parts in two different materials; Somos WaterShed XC, which is transparent and ABS-like, and Accura 25, which is white and opaque and PP-like. The materials have a nice and smooth surface and can be lacquered.

SLA has a number of advantages:

  • Accurate and with small tolerances
  • Very small details
  • Option for transparent material
The SLA 3D printing process

3D printing by means of SLA is a cold process, where a UV laser light is led over a vat with photo polymeric fluid, which hardens when the ray hits. The vat contains a build envelope, which is lowered one layer thickness at a time after a layer of fluid has been hardened, and the process continues until the parts have been created. After every hardening process, a sweeper runs over the vat to secure an even spreading of the highly viscous photo polymeric fluid.

When the process is finished, the building plate goes up and drains. After this, the parts are cleaned and lastly hardened in very strong UV light.

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 SLS™ (Selective Laser Sintering)

The SLS technology creates parts in a very strong nylon material and is ideal for function models, where design and functionality as snap and mechanisms must be tested. The material is hard-wearing, can be polished, dye dipped, painted and used in finished products (rapid manufacturing).

SLS has a number of advantages:

  • Mechanical qualities comparable with injection molded nylon
  • Cheap compared to other 3D print methods
  • Flexible and relatively strong
  • Can be put together into larger models
The SLS 3D printing process

3D printing by means of SLS is a warm process, where a infrared laser is led over a compact layer of powder, which melts when the ray hits. A piston plate lowers the build chamber (in the middle) one layer thickness at a time after a layer of powder has been melted. This process continues until the parts have been created. The build chambers on the left and right side are continuously raised and they supply build chamber in the middle with new powder, which is spread on the surface of the build chamber by a roller.

When the process is complete, the piston plate goes up and the whole block of powder from the middle build chamber is placed for cooling. After cooling, the excess powder is brushed away, and the aftercare of every single part can be carried out.

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MJF  (Multi Jet Fusion)

MJF has a number of advantages:

  • Mechanical properties compared to injection molded nylon
  • About half price compared to other 3D print methods
  • Up to 10 times faster
  • Flexible and strong
The MJF 3D printing process

FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling)

FDM technology creates parts in strong ABS plastic and is ideal for functional models where design and functionality as snap and mechanisms need to be tested. The material is durable, can be sanded, painted and available in the colors: Ivory, white, black, grey, red, blue, olive green, orange and yellow. Can be used in finished products (rapid manufacturing).

FDM has a number of advantages:

  • ABS material – as the ABS thermoplastics that are used for injection molding.
  • Cheap models (depending on the quantity, compared to SLS)
  • Flexible and strong
  • Faster than SLA and SLS
3D printing in FDM

3D printing in FDM is a hot process, in which you layer-by-layer heat and extrude the thermoplastic in a strand which cures immediately when it hits the underlying layer.

The platform on which the part is printed is lowered after each layer. This process continues until the 3D printing is complete. The size which can be printed is determined by the size of the machine’s building chamber, which varies from model to model.

 

 

PolyJet

The PolyJet technology creates detailed and complex 3D parts in materials with a number of varieties, from soft rubber to hard plastic. The technology gives you the opportunity to create multicomponent parts by combining up to 11 different materials in the same print. PolyJet parts have a nice surface and can be dye dipped and painted. They are very suitable for show models, because the technology gives you a realistic model of the finished product.

PolyJet has a number of advantages:

  • Fast process
  • Can print multicomponent parts
  • Opportunity for transparent material

 

The PolyJet 3D printing process

3D printing by means of PolyJet is a cold process, where the hardening of the material happens with UV light. The process is similar to a traditional inkjet printer, but instead of ink, a liquid acrylic-based fluid drips down upon the build envelope. A roller spreads the fluid and the UV light hardens the fluid before the next layer is applied. The build envelope is lowered a layer thickness in every sequence, and the process continues until the parts have been printed.

When the process is done the parts are removed from the build envelope, cleaned and dried.

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Wax

3D printed wax parts have extreme fine details and can be melted. The parts are used for “lost wax” molding, and is thereby a part of the production of the mold for metal parts. The wax parts are very fragile and must be treated with caution.

3D printing in wax has a number of advantages:

  • Very fine details
  • Can be melted and is being used for “lost wax” mold processes
The wax 3D printing process

3D printing wax is a warm process, where wax material, approximately 50°C, drips onto the build envelope from the print head. A roller spreads the layer evenly, and the wax is cooled and hardened before the next layer is applied. The build envelope is lowered a layer thickness in every sequence, and the process continues until the parts have been printed.

When the process is done, the parts are being removed from the build envelope. Every part is supported by a support material, which is being removed, when you melt it and in that way cleanse the part.

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Plaster

3D printing plaster parts is a cheap and fast process and is mainly used for concept models. The technology gives you a realistic model of the finished product, because it is possible to print up to 390.000 colours. Thin plaster parts are fragile and must in these cases also be treated with caution.

File formats for printing in white or in colours

File formats for WHITE:
– STL

File formats for COLOURS:
– VRML (sometimes known as VRL)
– PLY
– 3DS
– FBX
– ZPR

3D printing in plaster has a number of advantages:
  • Fast process
  • Print in 390.000 different colours
  • Cheap
The plaster 3D printing process

3D printing in plaster is a cold process, where a print head is led over a thin layer of plaster powder in a build chamber. Glue is sprayed on the powder in the wanted colour from the print head, and it thereby ties the plaster together. A reservoir supplies new powder in the process, which is spread on the surface of the build chamber by a roller. The build chamber is lowered a layer thickness in every sequence, and the process continues until the parts have been printed.

When the process is done, the excess plaster powder is removed, and the aftercare of the parts is concerned with increasing its strength and intensifying the colours.

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DLP (Digital Light Processing)

The DLP technology is ideal for parts with small and very fine details. It can be used for functional models, where design and detailed mechanisms must be tested. DAVINCI produces DLP parts in different materials. Among these is a biocompatible variant, which can be used for end products which are in contact with the skin (for instance hearing aids and in-ear headsets). The materials have a nice surface and can be lacquered.

DLP has a number of advantages:

  • Accurate at small tolerances
  • Very fine details
  • Opportunity for biocompatible material
The DLP 3D printing process

3D printing by means of DLP is a cold process, where UV or Visual light is projected upon a glass vat with photo polymeric fluid, which hardens when the light hits. The light source is projected on the bottom of the glass vat, and via more than a one million independent, moving mirrors, the geometry, which the light must harden, is created. The vat contains a build envelope, which is raised a layer thickness at a time after a layer of fluid is hardened, and the process continues until the parts have been printed.

When the process is done, the build envelope drains and the parts are cleaned and hardened.

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